Drinking a soda to quench your thirst is an example of _ reduction; drinking a soda because you love its tangy sweetness is an example of _ motivation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When Deanna screams continuously, her mother occasionally pays attention to her. The operant response is given the symbol _, while a discriminative stimulus is given the symbol _. Steven has fond memories of his mother reading fairy tales to him when he was a child, and as a result he now enjoys reading fairy tales as an adult. operant conditioning the organism develops the expectation that their response will be rein-forced, which also includes latent learning without proximate reinforcement (Myers 2008: p. 243). Beth quickly pulled her hand back. "If I'm not a success in every aspect of my life, my family will reject me." As a result, the rat is more likely not to press the lever. C) observational learning. Of the four basic intermittent schedules, Jason's behavior of asking Neem for a date is best described as being on a _ schedule of reinforcement. Operant Conditioning (OC) is a method of learning developed by behaviourist, B.F. Skinner, who believed that human behaviour is extrinsically motivated. A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that signals that a _ is available. The theoretical difficulty with avoidance behavior, as opposed to escape behavior, is that the individual is moving from one (aversive/. Because of this punishment, the child forms an association between the action (throwing) and a result (getting punished). (A) during, (B) before, (C) after, (D) none of the preceding. For example, Spirit, a dolphin at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, does a flip in the air when her trainer blows a whistle. In behavioral _, a change in the rate of _ on one component of a multiple schedule is followed by a(n) (similar/opposite) _ change in the rate of _ on the other component. One evening at a nightclub, however, she had a frightening experience that really turned her off the club scene. This may be an example of a(n) _ contrast effect. She even asked Trish if she would like to go to the local video arcade, which had been a favorite activity of theirs when they first became friends. According to the _, walking through the woods could still be used as a reinforcer for yardwork given that one restricts the frequency of walking to _ its _ level. Harpreet very much enjoys hard work and often volunteers for projects that are quite demanding. From the perspective of this being an extinction process, Laura's behavior can be seen as an example of a(n) _. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Find GCSE resources for every subject. The gradual development of new operant behavior through reinforcement of _ to that behavior is called _. Operant responses are sometimes simply called _. Reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior, or its likelihood of being repeated, and punishment decreases it. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. This produces a _ rate of response. By comparison, a bee phobia may be acquired after _ conditioning trial(s). On a generalization gradient, the strongest response typically occurs to the _. Neem accepts Jason's invitation for a date only when she has "nothing better to do." This can be considered an example of an extinction effect known as _. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938). Only $2.99/month. The dog's behavior of baring his teeth and growling served to (positively/negatively) _ (punish/reinforce) _ Beth's behavior of trying to pull his tail. If she is also scolded when she speaks out of turn, she becomes less likely to interrupt the class. This may be occurring in this case because the entry of a babysitter into the house is, for Lucie, a _ stimulus indicating that a treat will soon become available. The next time Erin babysits Lucie, Lucie will (probably/probably not) _ resume asking for a treat. He sees a new update after 2 minutes, then 6, then 4, then 8. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if follow…. -Rate of responding > Independent of rate of reinforcement. response deprivation hypothesis; below; baseline. 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