There the landslides and rebuilding of the road are being attacked from both the north and the south simultaneously. The largest landslides triggered by the earthquake are located either on or adjacent to faults that ruptured to the ground surface. Satellite imagery including: WorldView- 2 (WV2) 2.4 m resolution (multispectral bands). And of course this work would not have been possible without the skill and dedication of the helicopter pilots from Precision Helicopters; Christchurch Helicopters; and Advanced Flight Ltd. Dellow G.D. 2001 GeoNet landslide response. From the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ: J Davidson. This landslide is a long (2.7 km) rock avalanche with a volume of about 10-14 million … Two ships were heading to the affected areas from Makassar and Balikpapan carrying rescuers and search and rescue equipment, while a Hercules plane carrying supplies was on its way from Jakarta. some combination of these methods]), specify the confidence of the mapping by either ‘High’ or ‘Low’. There are also a few landslide types that are rare (such as peat failures) but that have been included for completeness. Abstract: The MW7.8 14 November 2016 Kaikoura earthquake generated more than 10000 landslides over a total area of about 10000 km2, with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3600 km2. This suggests that event-triggered populations of large landslides could be used to map surface-fault rupture for previous historical earthquakes in New Zealand (e.g. Work areas that cannot be mapped (e.g. imagery etc.) Authorities were still collecting information about the full scale of casualties and damage in the affected areas. (compilers) 2006: Geology of the Kaikoura area: scale 1:250,000 geological map. In addition to discrete landslides, linear slope deformation indicators (i.e. The 14 November 2016 M w 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake generated more than 10,000 landslides over a total area of about 10, 000 km 2 ⁠, with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3600 km 2 ⁠.The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake had an approximate volume of 20 (± 2) M m 3 ⁠, with a runout distance … Uncoupled (i.e. sediment has remained on the slope); Coupled (at least some of the sediment has entered a drainage line (including active floodplain, but. See below a selection of photos. A high quality landslide inventory and detailed engineering geological mapping of the largest landslides will allow the interaction between large landslide occurrence and surface fault rupture to be investigated and how the localised release of energy, along with structural geological and material controls and slope morphology interact to initiate large landslides. This landslide is at -42.237, 173.664 if you want to take a look on Google Earth. New Zealand Geomechanics News 62: 31-35. Imagery date: 15 November 2016. Each source area should have a unique number. 70 p. + 1 folded map. At 12.03 am local time on 14th November 2016 (UTC: 11.03 am 13th November 2016) a shallow, magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck near Waiau in North Canterbury, NZ. On November 14, 2016, the South Island of New Zealand experienced a 7.8 magnitude earthquake named the Kaikoura Earthquake after the town of Kaikoura near the quake’s epicentre. Two people died in the earthquake. Given the sparsely populated area affected by landslides, only a few homes were impacted and no deaths from landslides occurred. On November 13, 2016, a powerful earthquake jolted the northeastern coast of New Zealand’s South Island. If there is a second material type involved which appears to have had a significant influence on the failure or runout mechanics, then can include a second material type. “We are racing against time to rescue them,” he said. A powerful Indian Ocean quake and tsunami in 2004 killed 230,000 people in a dozen countries, most of them in Indonesia. Sirajuddin, who goes by one name, said although the inland earthquake did not have the potential to cause a tsunami, people along coastal areas ran to higher ground in fear one might occur. The other work-stream focussed on landslide dams (landslides blocking rivers and streams and impounding bodies of water) and became an evolving process: from a search task, to a rapid assessment of hazard and examining high hazard dams for consequent risks, and then undertaking more detailed work to survey the most dangerous dams so the consequences of a very rapid (catastrophic) failure could be modelled and used by authorities to monitor and manage the risks. Fall, topple, slide (can differentiate into rotational, planar, wedge), flow (can differentiate into avalanche, dry flow, flowslide, earthflow), slope deformation, or creep. The Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake met several of these criteria, including the presence of consequential hazards in the form of landslide dams and direct damage in excess of $1 M. The landslide response in the first week involved developing an awareness of where landslides had occurred and their relative size and spatial density. From the University of Washington, Seattle, USA: J Wartman. ; Litchfield, N.J.; Van Dissen, R.J.; Ries, W.F. If debris trails from multiple source areas merge, then the polygons also need to merge. Low level aerial oblique photographs are also being used to help define the landslides. This ensures any subsequent work to understand and mitigate future hazards and risks from landslides has a good empirical evidence base. After several hours, an excavator came to help and the rescuers eventually retrieved four survivors and three bodies. Pre- and post-earthquake orthorectified aerial photographs (captured by Aerial Surveys Limited and commissioned by LINZ), 0.3 m resolution. 2017 A summary of fault ruptures and slip from the November 14th 2016 Kaikoura earthquake. Landslides affected a total area of about 10,000 km 2 with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3,600 km 2. This data will be especially useful for those similar-sized slopes in Wellington, where much of the city is formed in similar materials (greywacke sandstones and argillite) to those forming the slopes in the, albeit more mountainous, Kaikoura region. ; Perrin, N.D.; Dellow, G.D. 2002 Recent studies of historical earthquake-induced landsliding, ground damage, and MM intensity in New Zealand. As well as triggering tens of thousands of landslides on land, the magnitude 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, that shook New Zealand in the early hours of Monday 14 November, also caused a massive underwater landslide. The now-named Kaikoura Earthquake triggered up to 100,000 landslides in Northern Canterbury and southern Marlborough. ; Pinches, G.M. Response activities quickly evolved into two work-streams. Number does not have to be unique to the whole database, as ‘Originator’ field will be used to differentiate duplicate id numbers. used to digitize the landslide, and confidence in the mapping. Past efforts to explain the spatial variability in co-seismic landslide size and concentration typically rely on comparisons with earthquake magnitude and mechanism, epicentral distance, seismic observations such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and engineering parameters such as Arias Intensity and other proxies for ground shaking intensity such as proximity to mapped faults. For each of the methods (Satellite, Orthophoto, Oblique photo, Ground visit, or Multiple [i.e. Landslides along the coast, however, caused the closure of State Highway (SH) 1 and the North Line of the South Island Main Trunk Railway, preventing people and goods from entering or leaving the town of Kaikoura, which had a permanent population of about 3,550 people (and seasonally expands due to tourists). President Joko Widodo said in a televised address that he had ordered his social minister and the chiefs of the military, police and disaster agency to carry out emergency response measures and search and rescue operations as quickly as possible. These photographs (many thousands) have been captured by the landslide reconnaissance team and others post-earthquake, mainly from helicopters. Hancox, G.T. Once the inventory has been completed it will be uploaded to the NZ landslide database maintained by GNS Science (http://data.gns.cri.nz/landslides). Kaikoura earthquake landslides: the picture slowly emerges As parts of New Zealand continue to reel under the combined effect of the ongoing aftershocks and the effects of very heavy rainfall, the effects and extent of the Kaikoura earthquake landslides are slowly emerging. A horde of escaped crayfish (koura) was a side effect of Monday's massive 7.8 magnitude shake, according to Ward resident Kerry Snell. Officials, however, were cautioning that weather conditions could hamper rescue operations. The work described in this paper is the result of the efforts of many people. Several parts of State Highway 1 and the South Island main trunk railway between Ward in Marlborough and Oaro in North Canterbury were closed due to landslides. The largest landslides triggered by the earthquake are located on or adjacent to faults that ruptured to the ground surface and are distributed across a broad area of intense ground shaking rather than clustered around the earthquake epicentre, and their locations appear to have a strong structural geological control (Rattenbury et al., 2006). Website design by Futurelab | Landslides caused major disruption with all road and rail links with Kaikoura being severed. Rattenbury, M.S. The geotechnical efforts are documented … In a video released by the National Disaster Mitigation Agency, a girl stuck in the wreckage of a house cried out for help and said she heard the sound of other family members also trapped. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences 1:250,000 geological map 13. When they reach the The National Search and Rescue Agency’s chief, Bagus Puruhito, said rescuers from the cities of Palu, Makassar, Balikpapan and Jakarta were being deployed to help in Mamuju and Majene. Figure 1: An example of landslide inventory mapping on the coast north of Kaikoura. Copyright 2021 The Associated Press. The active fault ruptures caused by the earthquake are shown as black lines. The area affected by landslides is sparsely populated, only a few dwellings were impacted and there were no recorded deaths due to landslides. Two other people were rescued from the rubble of the house, including the man's 100-year-old mother. Landslide dams: Hapuku is just one of 200 landslide dams created when the November 14 earthquake dislodged massive slips into river valleys. There were reports of many people trapped in the rubble of collapsed homes and buildings. Landslides caused major disruption with all road and rail links to Kaikoura being severed. The Kaikoura Mw7.8 earthquake struck at 12.03 am local time on 14th November 2016 (UTC: 11.03 am 13th November 2016) – a shallow (15 km) magnitude 7.8 earthquake (Mw), with an epicentre located near Waiau in North Canterbury (Kaiser et al, 2017), and strongly shook the North Canterbury and Marlborough regions of NZ. Figure 2: The landslide inventory for the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake as at 19 May 2017. A strong, shallow earthquake has shaken Indonesia’s Sulawesi island, toppling homes and buildings, triggering landslides and killing at least 42 people. ; Townsend, D.; Johnston, M.R. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 35(2): 59-. From GNS Science, Dunedin, NZ: P Glassey. ‘High’ confidence can be used if you are fairly confident on the mapping. The USGS landslide program team and members of the Landslide GEER (Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance) team have also contributed their data. p. 32 In: Kelly, K.; Christophersen, A.; Rhoades, D.A. The data will be useful for recognizing immediate hazards (potential for failures/reactivations), outburst floods (dam breaches), short- to longer-term potential for debris flow and valley floor aggradation impacts, sediment budgets for catchments, and for assessing landslide causes (i.e. Its chairwoman urged people in coastal areas to move to higher ground as a precaution. The landslides are distributed across an elongated area consistent with the area affected by fault ruptures and intense ground shaking. Programme and abstracts. They are made available to the mapping team via a geodatabase structure in ESRI ArcMap. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission. ; Wang, T.; Harte, D.S. Following this, further samples of the mapped data have been targeted for field verification. The quake was centered 36 kilometers (22 miles) south of West Sulawesi province’s Mamuju district, at a depth of 18 kilometers (11 miles), the U.S. Geological Survey said. named ‘obscured areas’) is created that outlines the obscured areas. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. Thousands of displaced people were evacuated to temporary shelters. Review article. These linear features are attributed with the type of surface deformation (from the ‘Type’ dropdown list). Landslide crown: A point at the top of the landslide crown/headscarp (highest point). From the Elixis Group Ltd., Athens, Greece: J Manousakis. Our landslide and paleoseismology teams quickly took to the skies to spot landslides in the Kaikouras and Southern Alps. From the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA: A Adda. This is not the geology or description of the origin of the material, but rather related to the material properties and their genesis (origin) which influence the failure and runout behavior. Another video showed a father crying, asking for help to save his children buried under their toppled house. People react as the body of a relative is retrieved from the ruin of a building at an area affected by an earthquake in Mamuju, West Sulawesi, Indonesia, Friday, Jan. 15, 2021. The photographs are georeferenced using a GPS flight track-log, and they cover most of the area affected by landslides. For each landslide source area polygon, as much information as possible is entered into the attribute table (Table 1). 6 pm update: 25 eqs in the last hour, 313 eqs since 6 am today and 1212 eqs since the M7.5. ... Kaikoura was hit by a severe earthquake on the 14th November 2016. ‘Low’ confidence may indicate strong uncertainty in the landslide boundary, uncertainty in the type of landslide mapped, or uncertainty in co-seismic occurrence (in Kaikoura EQ sequence). There are drop down lists for landslide type information (material type and movement style/mechanism), which are based on the Hungr et al. High-quality empirical landslide inventories are crucial as a baseline dataset against which to quantify changing hazards as rainstorms and aftershocks further alter the landscape. ; Hammond, K.A.T. Along the Kaikoura coastline, earthquake conversation keeps turning to the native crayfish for which the coast is named. In the interests of space three people heavily involved in the initial response are named as authors, but that in no way reflects or diminishes the contributions made by the following people. Karmini reported from Jakarta, Indonesia. This describes the relationship of the landslide debris to streams/rivers or major drainage lines. A high-quality landslide inventory will provide a basis for understanding the longer-term impacts of this earthquakes as sediment is washed from slopes and through fluvial systems where bridges and flood protection schemes are at risk of being overwhelmed. More than 200 significant valley-blocking landslides triggered by this event have been mapped. A consequence of the strong ground shaking was widespread landslides. Such data will allow us to better constrain the response of the Wellington slopes to strong shaking, e.g. If it cannot be easily assessed use the ‘undifferentiated’ term. Landslides were set off in three locations and blocked a main road connecting Mamuju to the Majene district, said Raditya Jati, the disaster agency’s spokesperson. Post-earthquake digital elevation models derived from airborne LiDAR. A unique number for each digitiser’s working copy of the database. Feedback to website@nzgs.org, Landslides caused by the 14 November 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, South Island, New Zealand, NZGS International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. 106-116. The 7.8 magnitude quake lifted the seabed by 0.5 to 2 meters (2 to 7 feet) along a 20-kilometer stretch of the Kaikoura coast. The mapped landslide distribution reflects the complexity of the earthquake ruptures. More than 4,000 people died, many of the victims buried when whole neighborhoods were swallowed in the falling ground. The images from the different data sources do not cover the entire area affected by landslides, but together they cover all of the main area affected. A woman died in a log house that was damaged at Mount Lyford. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake had an approximate volume of 20 (±2) M m3, with a runout … 17 June 1929 M7.8 Murchison earthquake; Hancox et al., 2002). The coastal town of Kaikoura has been completely cut off from the rest of the country by landslides, prompting a mass evacuation that began Tuesday. Landslides affected a total area of about 10,000 km2 with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3,600 km2. Imagery date: 22 November 2016; WorldView- 3 (WV3) 1.4 m resolution (multispectral bands). 2010). The significant geotechnical impacts of the event included surface fault rupture and landslides, and observations of site effects, liquefaction, and social impacts were also important. In addition, a 1 m resolution DEM generated from pre-earthquake LiDAR covers a small coastal strip, but is still useful where applicable. After engineers have assessed the safety of the landslide, excavators carefully built a path to the top of the slip, zig-zagging across the slip’s face. Indicates whether landslide appears to be a first-time failure or a reactivation of a previous movement. These areas may be mapped at a later date if suitable imagery becomes available. The observed landslide types correlate to two main types of geologically and geotechnically distinct materials, Neogene sedimentary rocks, and Triassic to Cretaceous Torlesse greywacke (Massey et al., in prep). Families still isolated a MONTH after New Zealand earthquake as landslide blocks most direct road into their town - and face a 460km drive … A sample of each area is checked by another mapper. Hungr, O., Leroueil, S., Picarelli, L., 2014. ; Gerstenberger, M.C. One work-stream focussed on developing the processes and acquiring data in order to compile a world-class landslide inventory. Initial mapping method (i.e. The authors also thank the paper reviewers for their comments. All rights reserved. The longest runout slide triggered by the Kaikoura Earthquake was the Hapuku landslide, which occurred high up in the catchmnet of the Hapuku River. The 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake generated thousands of landslides and 196 landslide dams. Among the dead in Majene were three people killed when their homes were flattened by the quake while they were sleeping, said Sirajuddin, the district’s disaster agency chief. If you need help with the Public File, call 407-291-6000. Rescuers struggled to extract seven patients and staff who were trapped under tons of rubble. Capturing the landslide data is an ongoing process as new information becomes available (e.g. During the Kaikoura earthquake at least 23 faults ruptured to the ground … One of the main uses of this data will be to assess how slopes performed in particular rock and soil (material) types during the earthquake. To landslides hazard and geomorphic impacts Associated with large co-seismic landslides baseline dataset against which to quantify hazards... Homestead near Kaikōura collapsed Wellington slopes to strong shaking, e.g by either ‘high’ ‘Low’... 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